It's OK for intellectual feminists to like fashion

Blog title from Hadley Freeman's book The Meaning of Sunglasses : "Prada styles itself as the label it's OK for intellectual feminists to like".

The author is a bilingual fashion editor, writer and translator with a serious blog, cinema and magazine habit.

Subscribe to the Fashion Abecedaire newsletter

Twitter @FashionAbecedai

Email: fashionmemex(at)

Maybe it’s the upcoming school year. Maybe it’s the change of season. Maybe it’s confirmation bias. Of late, my Feedly has been filled with more articles than usual about wardrobe clearing, often illustrated with photos of Carrie Bradshaw pondering the content of her walk-in closet.

With my impending move to a new flat the floor below mine, last weekend I set to rationalise my closet, which comprises of: two chests of drawers (one for underwear, one for trousers and capes), four under-the-bed drawers (for jumpers, sportswear, pyjamas and handbags), one wardrobe (for dresses, skirts, hanging tops, folded shirts, t-shirts, scarves and stripes), an in-wall closet (for coats, jackets, hats and two boxes of out-of-season clothes) and a set of apparent shelves (for shoe boxes). I don’t have a walk-in closet; I have a walk-in bedroom filled with clothes.

I wasn’t just motivated by the prospect of moving. After five years working in the fashion industry, and 18 months writing about foreign policy on the side, I am going through a phase of fashion ambivalence. Maybe Leo should have said: ”There are three things in the world you never want to let people see how you make ‘em: fashion, laws and sausages.” (The West Wing 1x04 “Five votes down”). Last month, slightly sickened by the contrast between tweets on Gaza and tweets on seasonal trends, I purged my Twitter feed of most fashion-focused accounts.

My ultimate aim, by clearing my closet, was to make space. Not space I can fill with new items, as is often the drive behind a closet clear out in fashion magazines. Not even space so that I can spend less time in the morning deciding what to wear. I plan my outfits for the week ahead every Sunday, a routine that takes no more than 15 minutes and means I always know what to wear. I want to create space because creating space to think, creating space to act has of late been a mantra of mine. I wanted my wardrobe clearing to be the equivalent of my 30-minute lunchtime meditation session in Saint Faith’s chapel at Westminster Abbey: something that would help me stand still.

That’s for the intention. The reality has been somewhat different, as I have only managed to fill two large black The Kooples canvas bags with unwanted clothes and shoes, and flogged a few items on eBay.

Considering all the writing available on the topic, clearly I’m not the only one struggling. Wardrobe clearing (or detoxing, or rehab, depending how hip and conceptual you want to make it) is a burgeoning business with companies like Wardrobe Mistress (UK, starts at £595), The Organized Move (Southern California) and Clos-ette (USA) offering it as part of their services. It’s not just for busy-ness, practical or can’t-be-bothered reasons. Strangers have no emotional attachment to your clothes, nor are they under any misconception that you might just wear it, one day.

My dresses are particular culprits when it comes to the “I might wear it one day” illusion. Yes, I own a few that still have their labels on. Back in November 2012, I wrote about these dresses as “concept clothes”, items “generally bought in the sales, because I either think I look hot in them, have been lusting after them all season long or think they would be perfect for a cocktail party or a date, never mind I never go to either.”

Had I stuck with the intention for my wardrobe clearing, I should have gotten rid of these. Piled them high on my bed, folded them and filled another (couple of) those large black The Kooples canvas bags with them. But I couldn’t. They’re just too pretty, too exciting, too promising (although of what?). More importantly, looking at them makes me happy. As a middle ground, I swore I would wear them in the next few weeks. But then August decided to pretend it was October, and since the concept dress is never warm, that didn’t happen either. I could probably wear them under my latest concept coat: an oversized, laser-cut olive leather lace number I promised myself I would buy when I first saw it on the runway. I eventually purchased it last month for a fraction of its original price. Because I am so worried about damaging it, it remains in my credenza at work - as I don’t want to carry it home when there’s even the slightest chance it might get rained on. When it eventually gets home, I am thinking of hanging it in my bedroom so it can be admired every day. It’s not a coat, it’s art.

The “if you haven’t worn it in a year, get rid of it” rule features in pretty much every single wardrobe clearing article. Other recurrent themes include sorting your clothes by type, then by colour and making sure that you can see everything. Inspecting my wardrobe recently, a friend was surprised by how organised it is. I have my mother to thank for that, as she always classified our clothes by type and taught us to iron. Well-ironed clothes fold better and are easier to sort than not ironed ones, fact. Ironing is a great time investment when it comes to your wardrobe. It’s also a great thing to do while binge-watching Netflix or box sets and, if you’re anything like me, takes out some of the guilt of spending time Just Watching TV.

Another favourite wardrobe cleaning advice is to only keep clothes that fit you, not just body-wise but also lifestyle-wise. As my body hasn’t changed in 10 years, this isn’t one that helps me chuck out clothes. In fact, when I go back home, I still wear some of the t-shirts I bought age 15. I have been working in the same place for over four years now and I think my colleagues might get worried if they saw me going a full month without stripes. And yes, since this is fashion, I have even worn some of the concept dresses to the office, when I needed to self-justify not giving them away.

Most of my concept dresses come from MAJE, which brings me to the last recurrent advice I have noticed about clearing your wardrobe: only keep items of clothing you can match with others you own. No point owning a great silk shirt if you have no bottoms with to wear with it. I solved that problem a while back by only shopping at a few brands, which is why my wardrobe is exclusively made up of Burberry, Kookai, The Kooples, MAJE, Petit Bateau, Des Petits Hauts, Sandro and Zadig et Voltaire. I know they’ll always fit together, likely because the same team always designs them. Even though inspiration and fabrics change season to season, they stick to the spirit of what made their brand popular and as such, it makes their clothes easy to mix and match.

This isn’t an article however about how I couldn’t clear my wardrobe because it’s already perfect as it is. I am proud of my wardrobe. In fact, when I think about whether or not me, aged 10 to 15, would have been happy of what it is like, my measure of success in all domains, I am sure I would be blown away by the wardrobe I have put together, in absolute modesty of course.

Going through my wardrobe, trying to apply the clearing out advice found online, made me realise how much I love the clothes I have. It also made me realise I take issue with these type of articles because of the consumerism they exemplify.

If you believe The Devil Wears Prada, Anna Wintour archives and reorders the content of her closet every season. But Anna Wintour has a duty to the business model she represents to show that clothes should be renewed everything six months (or less, if you count pre-collections). That goes through the editorials and articles in Vogue as well as her own public appearances. You and I? Not so much. Buying trends, datable, obvious trends is what creates the clear out need as their shelf life is short and they will have to go to make space for the next ones.

My other issue with the concept of a wardrobe clear out is that it presupposes discontent with its content. But if you know who you are and what your style is, if you have decided on what image you want your clothes to project, and if you’re not buying compulsively, is there any need to clear, beyond the ill-fitting, the stained and the broken? Hand on my heart, I can say I know every single item in my wardrobe right now, and love every single one of them. So they all stay.

Posted at 7:58am and tagged with: first person, wardrobe, Anna Wintour,.

My secret crumble: lessons from 15 years of crumble baking

My sister Camille, who claims Bree Van De Kamp as her Desperate Housewives counterpart (at least on the cooking front), once shared her theory that you can pretend to be a good cook by mastering one savoury and one sweet dish. My sweet one: the fruit crumble.

I build entire menus around the fruit crumble, the perfect comfort food. It works on children and adults, it is adaptable to any season and to any fruit bowl, it is a great way to use leftover fruits and it is almost impossible to mess up, unless you leave it in the oven a bit too long.

Not that I have been a stranger to crumble disasters. There was the blueberry and peach crumble that burnt just short of being inedible. It taught me that to bake a crumble to perfection, you should turn off the oven as it is still slightly undercooked and leave it to finish baking as the oven cools down. But aside from that near carbonisation, most incidents occurred at the topping-making level, particularly at the flour-adding stage.

Camille and I started making crumbles in our early teens, after we found a recipe in Julie, a girls’ magazine she had a subscription to. Even though neither our parents are the crumble type, the crumble is linked to memories of Nevers summers and pêches de vigne, the flavoursome, fleshy white and red peach that grew in our gardens by the basket-load. We would gather the fallen ones in the warmth of a late summer morning or the heat of a mid-afternoon. Camille would get on with the peeling while I would make the topping.

One year, we decided to welcome our parents back from a work weekend away with our special: a pêches de vigne and stewed apple crumble. Too much enthusiasm getting the flour out of the packet meant our parents were met with a yummy dessert, a just-cleaned-to-the-last-corner kitchen and two freshly showered daughters. Ten years later, making a summer berry crumble for 12 in my London flat, windows wide open to deflect the July heat wave, a draught that turned the kitchen white surprised me. Not what you want two hours before guests arrive. So this is my second crumble-baking learning: adding flour needs to be handled with care.

And while on the topic of topping, here is my third lesson: use salted butter. Most recipes advise unsalted butter but I find the salt, contrasting with the fat of the butter, the sugar of the crumble and the slight acidity of the fruits gives the desert an additional depth of taste. Possibly because the salt-fat-sugar combo is so addictive.

I also differ from many recipes when it comes to assembling the topping. I never use anything but my fingers to do it, first because it was one of my favourite parts of the baking process when I was cooking with my sister, and as such is fuelled with memories, and also because no fork, no pulsing gives as good a result. Now for the less glamorous details: you need to really wash your hand and trim your fingernails. Also: no nail polish. I never put the mixture in the freezer or the fridge, although that’s something I only heard of recently, rather than because the eventual result is bad.

I keep mentioning contrast and texture because this is what makes the crumble the perfect dessert. To add crunch, I often add almond flakes. Some recipes suggest multiple types of nuts, or even oats, but I stick to almonds, because I also include ground almonds in the dough and I don’t want to overpower with too many flavours. Almond flakes burn easily so it’s best not to add them from the start. I tend to scatter them on the crumble at the same time as I turn the oven off.

Making the perfect topping however counts for naught if the fruits aren’t quite there. They need to be perfectly peeled. Biting into a spoonful of melting, fragrant apple and ginger crumble and finding a little leftover of skin isn’t the contrast you’re going for. I count the time it takes to peel the fruits in terms of TV shows. For instance, a rhubarb, pear and apple crumble for 15 is a three West Wing-episodes crumble.

To reach the required texture, so the fondant perfectly contrasts with the crunchiness of the topping, some fruits, particularly winter ones, need to be stewed first. This is another chance to add depth, for instance with cinnamon or mint. The spice is more powerful if it was added at the stewing stage rather than on raw fruits, before putting the dish in the oven. Plus the spice used is an indication of what to serve with the crumble: rather than vanilla (expected, safe and boring vanilla) go for cinnamon or ginger ice cream. If you’ve added either to the fruits it will complement them perfectly.

Not all fruits should be stewed though: for a mango and apple crumble, you should stew the apples but use the mango raw. Same for kiwis. Summer berries don’t have to be stewed but doing so will increase the juices, which means they will ooze over the topping and slightly candy in the oven. If your stewed fruits have rendered a lot of juice, apply a very thin layer of flour to the bottom of the crumble dish to keep the desert moist rather than runny.

After 15 years of crumble-making, I have settled on the following ingredients and proportions for four people, essentially a twist on The Guardian's “How to make perfect crumble" recipe:

  • 100g of plain white flour
  • 50g of ground almond
  • 35g of Demerara sugar
  • 35g of caster sugar
  • 125g of salted butter

And here are a few recipes I am hoping to try over the next few months:

Pear and blueberry crumble by Simply delicious by Alida Ryder; Paleo strawberry crumble by Stephie Cooks; Five ingredient strawberry crumble by Jessica in the Kitchen; Ginger peach crumble by Gimme Some Oven; Salted caramel apple crumble by Lauren’s Latest; Blackberry chocolate chip cookie crumble by Love & Olive Oil; My mum’s famous 5-ingredient rhubarb crumble by Cloudy with a Chance of Wine; Peach and blueberry crumble by Cooking Classy; Poached pear crumble by Sips and Spoonfuls; Paleo cherry crumble by Confessions of an Overworked Mum.

Posted at 2:02pm and tagged with: food, first person,.

Judy Jackson is a cookbook writer, a novelist, a blogger and a grandmother to 12 children. When she contacted me in late June, I was in the middle of gathering cooking blogs, as part of yet another attempt at Using My Kitchen More. Interviewing a blogging grandmother, something I had never done before, also promised to be an interesting angle.

When Judy sent me the photos to illustrate this blog entry, she wrote that they demonstrated her blogging philosophy: exquisite food that looks good, showing that much of it is easy and humour.

Below, she shares further insight on the rules of food writing for print and digital, how publishing is a family adventure and a list of her favourite cookbooks.

Why did you decide to start a blog as an extension of your books?

I didn’t decide. When I was writing books and sending articles to newspapers, I’d never heard of Tumblr. One of my grandsons suggested it and I agreed, saying “yes I’ll do it once a week.” “’No” he said. “It’s got to be every day.” So I just got started and after putting up a daily post and photo for a couple of years, the blog suddenly took off and I got thousands of followers.

How do you choose what you write about?

I write about food I love and things I know. I’ve been in the food-writing world for years and in that time I have experimented with all kinds of ingredients. Now that I don’t need to pitch ideas to editors, I can choose to feature a pile of éclairs I’ve made for a party or two round courgettes and some chive flowers.

Do you plan your articles in advance?

I work on about ten posts at a time. Sometimes they have a theme, other times each one is completely different from the next. I take care to alternate sweet and savoury dishes, and I include a lot of vegetarian ideas. I try to include something topical and I also like to be provocative, for example making niggling comments about Brussels sprouts or cottage cheese.

I plan in advance, so I can spend a concentrated period working and thinking about the blog - it also allows me to go away for some days and know that the posts will go up automatically every day.

Who do you write for?

Anyone who likes fresh and appealing looking food. Probably my audience is those who don’t have much time or space to cook. I take a lot of care with the photography, sometimes taking 30 shots to get the one I eventually put up. That’s what brings people to the blog - the pictures, first and foremost.

What’s your process for the photos?

I cook and set up the dish and pay a lot of attention to co-ordinating colours on a plate. I try to work in natural daylight, though this isn’t always easy in the winter months in London. I use a tripod and I enjoy ‘styling’ the shot. I have many props: interesting containers, fabrics, etc. I often photograph what we are eating for dinner. This annoys my long-suffering husband, Michael, since I call him into the kitchen and then say “Hang on, you can’t eat it yet. I have to take pictures first.” I can’t have him disturb the plate till I know the photo has worked!

How is writing about recipes online different from writing for a book?

Firstly, a book has to have a theme.  I wrote a book in the early days when microwaves became popular and every recipe had to have steps done with a microwave. This was limiting (and sometimes laughable) but you need to fit in with what the commissioning editor wants.

With a blog, you have the tremendous freedom to write what you want. This is also a danger - there is no editor checking your work. But the recipes HAVE to be precise. They must work. I take great care either to describe the steps in the body of the post (if it’s something short) or give a link to a video or the best description I know.

You’re on a mission to show cooking is easy. How does your blog fit in with that?

I don’t believe most cooking is complicated. You need some basic skills and with cakes, you need to be meticulous in following the recipe because the balance of eggs, sugar, butter etc. is crucial to the way a cake turns out. With soups it’s quite the opposite: you can improvise, leave out what you don’t like and pile in what you do like.

My style of cooking doesn’t use a large number of ingredients: I think long lists are very daunting. That’s why I don’t feature Indian or Thai dishes - they need a completely different skill. I also happen to enjoy food where one or two tastes stand out, rather than adding numerous herbs or spices. For example, I love mint, but would never put it with coriander and parsley all together.

On the blog I always say if something is time-consuming or difficult to make, but I put it in anyway because bread, brioche, choux pastry, puff pastry are all things which to me, are worth the effort.  But to balance this, there are far more dishes showing how you can put together a meal in minutes, or how to deal with unusual fruits or vegetables.

Aside from Tumblr, you are present on Twitter and Facebook. How do you put together your social media strategy?

I’m not that active on Twitter. I have very little to say that can be communicated in 140  characters. Also I love reading, but have little time for the stream of tweets that come in. I’d    much prefer to spend 15 minutes reading fiction than half an hour catching up on social media.

Facebook is different: my posts go automatically there from Tumblr. But I don’t use Facebook socially. If I want to communicate with my friends and family I much prefer to send them private notes or pictures, rather than let the whole world know what I’m thinking.

Why move from cookbook writing to novel writing?

Seven years ago I was inspired to write the true story of my great grandfather. He lost his whole family in an earthquake in 1837 and I started to research and write about his life. Then I had a 30-year gap in the story, so I took the bold (some will say unwise) step of turning the book into a novel, which is called The Camel Trail.  I totally loved writing it; I couldn’t wait to get down to my computer at 7 am every day. This book did have a link to food. Each chapter opened with an extract from an antique cookbook. Because of this it was entered in a World Gourmand competition and to my amazement it won the Best Food Literature book in 2007. That was so thrilling. I started my next novel about a year after that. It was originally called Trio, and went through many stages of rewriting and restructuring. Now it’s called Sextet and just before it was published it was chosen to be launched in London as one of ‘ten outstanding books.’ So this was my second piece of good luck and, I suppose, an endorsement of all the hard work I’d put into it. I think I’ve got carried away with the joy of having a potentially successful book out there. I lost a much-loved watch at the book launch and have replaced it with one I designed myself. What’s on the face? The word Sextet, of course!

Who and what are your biggest food writing influences?

The first one was Marguerite Patten. When I got married in 1961, my mother gave me her Cookery in Colour. I still refer to it when I want to check the quantities in pancakes, biscuits, sauces etc. She is a wonderful lady and some years ago she gave me an endorsement for one of my cookbooks A Feast in Fifteen Stories.

I am an admirer of Raymond Blanc. I love his presentation of classic French cuisine. Nigella Lawson has cleverly reinvented baking. She took classic cake recipes and she made them more appealing. People forget that cakes didn’t get invented for The Great British Bake Off. Its presenter Mary Berry wrote a book called The New Cake Book in 1989. Cakes haven’t changed much since then but now they are presented in novel ways to a younger audience who have never heard of the originals. Still on sweet things, the Roux brothers are masters of Patisserie. I once gave a one-to-one cookery class to a lawyer who wanted to learn how to cook. At the end of a week I asked him to choose any recipe he wanted to do. He chose a pithiviers cake, a complicated concoction of butter puff pastry with an almond filling. He followed the Roux brothers’ recipe to the letter and it was a huge success.

For midweek supper dishes I like Nigel Slater - his food is sparky and original, yet he is down to earth and not at all pretentious. My great love is Italian food, so Anna del Conte has to be the queen of Northern Italian food. Further South Cucina Siciliana by Clarissa Hyman stands out for its brilliant photography; food that leaps off the page interspersed with pictures of the locals in villages, in conversation, or watching the world go by. Just turning the pages takes me back to lazy days in Sicily or Sardinia. Talking of going back, one of the oldest books in my collection of 300 volumes is The Art of French Cooking probably published in the 1950s. You can’t fail to smile at the immensely complicated design and presentation of French food at that time.

You’re the first grandmother I have interviewed for this column. Do you think being older means you approach blogging differently and if so how?

To answer the first part of the question, here are some thoughts on being a grandmother. Lots of elderly people hardly use the internet at all as they are retired. I am working every day and I do a lot of research on the web. Being on Tumblr brings you into contact with a young audience.  Because I follow writers I also get some inspiring thoughts (quotes, books to read) which I reblog to my foodie audience, somehow linking a picture of a stunning dish to something to think about.

Being a grandmother gave me some opportunities: time to spend cooking with a 9-year old grandchild who hated food. We played games and experimented and this all turned into a book called Lookit Cookit - kitchen games for curious children. My blog The Armchair Kitchen was originally conceived to publicize this little book.

Then the older grandchildren - now 18 and upwards - have helped me enormously. One introduced me to Spotify, so I can listen to music while I work on my blog posts. Then I got three others involved in the production of Sextet. One designed the text, another did the cover illustration and a 16-year old has made a remarkably professional video. I didn’t get them involved to save money on hiring professionals; I wanted to use their creativity to help me and also to give them something worthwhile to add to their CVs.

Now to whether being older makes me approach blogging differently: I don’t think being older is an issue - apart from the know-how I’ve accumulated over many years. Blogging is about connecting with people and I just love to see comments on the food I put up. If a post goes in at 7am and someone in Australia or The Philippines ‘likes’ it at 7.30am that gives me a buzz.

One aspect that may set me apart from younger bloggers is the style of my blog. I don’t write about dishes I’ve eaten for breakfast or dinner in a restaurant (it’s too hard to get a good photo of a plate on a crowded table). There has to be a reason why a dish is interesting to other people and I try to bring that out in the posts I write. This goes back to my thoughts on Facebook: for me the blog is a professional collection of immensely varied dishes - not just a stream of pretty things I’ve encountered.

Having a successful blog does bring me into contact with a lot of young people and keeps me in the world of food writing - which I might have left due to the increasing difficulty of getting cookbooks published.

Writing the blog - and thinking about it - takes up much of my time, but it’s what I want to do. It gives me opportunities to find out more about food and cooking: going to workshops, restaurant openings, exploring places like Covent Garden market in London at 6am, learning from the experts about chocolate, herbs, olive oil, etc. All of these give me inspiration for next week’s posts. Elderly grannies used to knit and make jam. I can’t do either of these, so I cook, write and take photographs!


Posted at 7:51am and tagged with: blogger adventure, food,.

French cultural blogger Caroline Doudet, better known online as L’Irrégulière, who reviews books, films and TV series on her blog Cultur’elle, has been convicted by a French court for being ranked too well by Google. Or more exactly, for publishing a piece discouraging readers from eating at a Cap Ferret pizzeria.

The court requested she changed the blog entry title, seen as denigrating. L’Irrégulière elected to remove the whole article instead. “Technically, it was quicker to remove than to edit, especially since Google does as it pleases anyway, as we can see with the cached page”, she explains in an email interview.

L’Irrégulière reproached the restaurant for its terrible service, a criticism echoed by more than a few reviews on Trip Advisor, although a near-equal number rave about the place and its pizzas.

The whole affair happened on the down low, barely mentioned by L’Irrégulière herself, until lawyer and star Tweeter @Maitre_Eolas (142K followers) highlighted it on 7 July. The news was picked up by media analysis site Arrets Sur Image and has since made headlines in specialist digital publications as well as in mainstream news outlets such as Le Monde and The Independent.

Ms Doudet, who acknowledges being surprised by the support she’s received from readers and strangers alike, says she didn’t expect the reactions to reach such proportions: “I was always going to let my readers know about it, probably on Facebook since I didn’t write about the whole affair on my blog itself. I doubt it would have had such a snowball effect though”.

In addition to being asked to edit her title, L’Irrégulière has to pay up €2,5000 in damages, a significant amount for this high-school teacher. Asked by her readers how they could best support her, the blogger set up a crowdfunding page on platform Pot Commun. She’s since had to shut it down since the process isn’t allowed by the French tax administration.

So is this the end of bloggers’ freedom of speech in France? Unlikely.

Although seemingly about slander, this ruling is actually about Internet misunderstanding and how behind the judicial system is. The judge asked for the title to be edited, ignoring caching. The restaurateur brought the case to the courts because “the article was going up and up in Google ranking”, which is the nature of SEO and something no amount of ruling can do anything against. Ms Doudet declared to the BBC that “this decision creates a new crime of ‘being too highly ranked [on a search engine]’, or of having too great an influence’”. The Google algorithm (as well as people’s searches) is responsible for that ranking, not her.

The restaurateur, like the lawyer who advised her, ignored that any outcome favourable to them would be met with an Internet storm. Today, anyone searching for “Il Giardino Cap-Ferret” on French or English search engines will be met with articles about the ruling rather than about the greatness (or lack of) of its cuisine. The damage to the restaurant reputation is higher than to Cultur’elle, a thoughtful, well written and intelligent amateur French blog that, ironically, I would never have discovered otherwise. Of course, this is a perfect example of the Streisand effect whereby strong attempts to crush one bit of information from becoming public results in its popularisation.

As Eloise Wagner, an intellectual property lawyer, writes for Le Nouvel Observateur, lawsuits prompted by bad reviews are nothing new in the gastronomy world, although they tend to be about guidebook criticism. French law allows criticism providing it is fair, objective and not made with the intention of damaging a reputation.

Ms Doudet elected not to have legal representation at the emergency hearing because it came as a surprise and she wasn’t able to get any in a short period of time. A lawyer would have argued that the review wasn’t done to damage the restaurant but based on a series of facts experienced by the blogger, which she lays out in the entry: dishes sent in the wrong order, unprofessional service etc. A lawyer would also have quoted a number of French and European prior cases and legal texts that go against the ruling.

Since, under French law, the ruling against L’Irrégulière doesn’t create a legal precedent, but that hopefully the reaction to it will be a cautionary tale for other companies wishing to pursue a similar route, it is unlikely the affair will have many freedom of speech consequences.

As for Ms Doudet, she hopes the ruling won’t change the way she writes her blog although she observes “there are topics I might avoid, which is silly since I have been to many nice places recently. It’s true I rarely write rants like this one, and when I do it tends to be more about news topics than brands. Regarding books, my reviews tend to be quite measured anyway and I doubt any publisher would risk a trial.”

Posted at 7:20pm and tagged with: france, blogger adventure,.

Blogger Adventure: A. Bello’s pop-up blog Rose

On 4 August 2014, children’s author A. Bello will launch Rose, a pop-up blog exploring why Neci, the baddie in her book Emily Knight I Am, became hateful. Rose will only be available for one month, with one chapter published and taken down every week over four weeks, before forever disappearing from the interweb.

A gifted writer and dancer dedicating much of her young career to inspiring children, A.Bello isn’t new to the blogging world: for three years, she has been running Life of a Street Dancer where she chronicles her writing journey, her struggles to get signed by an agent and her school visits.

I caught up with her on how and why she got the innovative idea for a pop-up blog, her creative process and what being a role model means to her.

Why create a pop-up blog as an extension to Emily Knight I Am?

I wanted to do something different. Sometimes with a book, you can’t expand on certain characters if it’s not relevant to the story line. I wanted an opportunity to show more depth in those characters. It’s an experiment to see if perception changes once you know more.

How did you get the idea?

It just came to me. I remember doing an Author’s visit at a school and the class said how at first, they thought Emily was such a brat but once they understood her, they changed their minds. So I wondered if people knew Neci’s story would they sympathise with her? I want to see if people change their minds on Neci after reading the blog.

Why did you make it a pop-up blog?

I didn’t want to deal with the hassle of getting a book done, as it isn’t for money, it’s for the fans. I can see how many reads a blog gets. If it’s successful, I will do more on different characters.

I thought it would be cool to have a pop-up blog that fans could really get into. I get messages all the time as to when the second book is coming out but as I’m in the process of getting a book deal, I wanted to do something to keep the interest.

Have you already written all chapters or will you be writing as you publish?

I have already written the chapters but I have changed bits here and there. Rose was actually the prologue to my second book, so really people are getting an advanced extract!

Each chapter is going to disappear after seven days. Why not keep them up forever?

It keeps the experiment interesting. As a kid, I would have loved that suspense!

Which public are you trying to reach through Rose?

Mainly my fans, the young people. Hopefully they will like the blog and if they haven’t read the book, they’ll read it.

Theme-wise, Rose will be similar to the movie Maleficent, which is doing really well at the moment. Why do you think we are interested in the topic?

As humans, we don’t want to believe someone is born evil. I think experiences and environment are what influences a character, so an opportunity to find out how they became bad is intriguing. I haven’t seen Maleficent yet! Angelina Jolie is my favourite actress and I was so scared of that character when I was a kid! Sleeping Beauty was the creepiest Disney movie, so maybe after watching it I won’t be so freaked out by her.

Why did you decide to use Blogger as a platform?

Originally, I wanted to have the story as something you could download but then I wouldn’t be able to track the views. My friend suggested doing a blog, which made more sense. I have been using Blogger for years for my other blog, Life of a Street Dance, and it’s really easy to use.

You’ve been running Life of a Street Dance for over three years now. Why did you decide to start it?

I used to be very private with my writing. I used to write just for me. When I was thinking about becoming published, I realised I had to get over the fear of people reading what I wrote. I also thought other people who wanted to get into writing or dancing and wanted to understand what it was like, could get an insight into it and see the challenges, because there are a lot! But I’m so glad I wrote it because I can see how far I’ve come. If I’m feeling a bit blah, reading past blogs lifts me up.

How do your writing processes for Emily Knight and for your blog differ?

Emily is all of the crazy things that I think about; it’s my escapism and my fantasy world. Life of a Street Dancer is all me and the real things that happen to me.

Are there similarities between your dancing and writing creative processes?

With both of them, I see what I want to create in my mind first. It plays out like a movie: I see it all in my head and then I create it.

The key characters in Emily Knight are female. Why was it important?

There aren’t enough lead female characters in children’s fantasy books. I do think it’s getting better but nowhere near enough. Us females are just as fab as guys!

As a self-published author how important have blogs and social media been to your promotion?

I self-published Emily. Thankfully I’m signed to an agent now because it was hard! Social media is key. I only made my TwitterTumblr etc. to reach out to more people but you have to be consistent to get results. My Emily fan page on Facebook reached 10k this year, which is amazing!! I won’t be content till I reach over a million though. Blogging was a great way to connect to people prior to my book release and I still keep it going because I get pretty good hits on it.

As a talented, driven young female black writer, you are an inspiration for young girls. Is being a potential role model something conscious for you?

Oh thank you! I have worked with young people since I was 16 so I feel I have always been conscious of how I act, as I know a lot of young people look up to me. The bigger my books get, the more that role will be, so it’s in my best interest to always be aware of my actions.

Posted at 8:05pm and tagged with: blogger adventure, book review,.

Explore the Fêtes Galantes at Paris’ Musée Jacquemart-André

From Watteau to Fragonard, Les Fêtes Galantes, an exhibition currently showing at Paris’ Jacquemart-André museum, is the perfect introduction to this elegant and refined period of French art history.

The term refers to a new style of painting and drawing that blossomed in the early 18th century, at the end of Louis XIV’s reign, and lasted throughout the Regency period. Typically, the paintings feature groups of men and women engaging in games or conversation amidst idealised representations of nature.

Located on the top floor of the Jacquemart-André museum, the exhibition explores, over 60 paintings and drawings, the chronological evolution of Fêtes Galantes.

The star of the exhibition is Jean-Honoré Fragonard’s La Fête à Saint-Cloud, a large painting on exceptional loan from France’s national bank La Banque de France. It depicts, in great detail, a fair in a Western suburb of Paris. There is a puppet theatre, puppet sellers, women playing, a fallen tree… Each scene could be a painting on its own.

Although La Fête a Saint-Cloud is an extraordinary painting and I was lucky to see it for real, my favourite section of the exhibition was the display of Antoine Watteau’s drawings, particularly his red chalks. Here, his talent and the spontaneity of his strokes are visible to all. Stripped from the corset of oil painting, his characters seem ready to move out of their frames, their clothes coming to life in the vivid rendering of fabrics and pleats.

Inspired by pastoral scenes, Watteau was a pioneer of the Fêtes Galantes genre. A fascinating short video at the very beginning of the exhibition explains how the at-times-lazy Watteau would cover his paintings with a sheet when his work done, just so he could make a copy and reuse groups of characters on other paintings. He used this technique on two depictions of a Pilgrimage to Cythera. Experts are still disputing which one he painted first. Neither painting is on display at the exhibition but the discussion surrounding them, particularly the debate as to whether the characters are arriving at or leaving from the island of love, is another Fêtes Galantes trait. Calling upon themes of love and relationship that resonate with all of us, the genre entices the imagination.

For instance, Jean-Francois de Troy’s The Rendez-Vous at the Fountain or The Alarm depicts a couple in close conversation. Is it an illicit meeting between lovers? Sweet words between newly enamoured young people? Or maybe a conversation between a man and a woman whose families disapprove of their union? A servant, asked to keep guard, interrupts. Quick, one of you hide! Someone is coming and they can’t be seen together.

Another painting that’s easy to extrapolate from is Jean-Baptiste Leprince’s La Precaution Inutile. A woman in her late teens sits on a bench, tied to an older man. He is sleeping. Is he a father, worried his daughter is going to show independent thought? A much older husband forced on her, concerned his wife might not be so enamoured with all his wrinkles? A servant tasked with looking after a girl displaying too much liberty? Whoever he is, his stratagem failed: a young man, partly hidden in the bushes, is taking advantage of his slumber to seduce the charge.

Beyond the beauty and technicality of the paintings, the Fêtes Galantes exhibition is a reminder of what romance was in the 18th century, and of the restrictions and social conventions imposed on individuals.

Sadly, the exhibition doesn’t make the best of its incredible surroundings. Much like the Nissim de Camondo museum, the Jacquemart-André Museum is a private mansion turned national museum, which dates back to the early 20th century. The Jacquemart-André couple collected multiple Fêtes Galantes paintings, which can be seen throughout the residence, without a clear link made to the exhibition taking place upstairs.

Collectors and artists, Edouard André and Nélie Jacquemart assembled, over 10 years, 5,000 or so oeuvres d’art ranging from Tiepolo’s massive fresco The Return of Henry III, moved from Italy to overlook the grand staircase, to Uccello’s iconic Saint Georges and the Dragon, which was reproduced in all my English language books.

An island of quietness straight on Boulevard Haussmann, the museum hosts a high-end café, with surroundings matching in grandeur and decoration the collections. There is a Fêtes Galantes-themed menu. My sister and I had the Lancret, a duck with soy and honey sauce, green asparagus and risotto and mushrooms. This was followed by a nutty Russian cake and a cream and raspberry-filled macaroon from the decadent dessert trolley. Despite this, the best part of the café probably is Parisians-watching. They are exactly the kind of Parisians you read about in books and magazines but don’t think exist in real life. This seems to be where they lunch.

Photo credits: (1) Antoine Watteau (1684-1721), La Proposition embarrassante Vers 1715 - 1720 Huile sur toile 65 x 84,5 cm Musée de l’Ermitage, Saint-Pétersbourg Photograph © The State Hermitage Museum / Vladimir Terebenin; (2) Antoine Watteau (1684 – 1721), Fête galante avec joueur de guitare et sculpture d’enfants jouant avec une chèvre Vers 1717-1719 Huile sur toile 115 x 167 cm Inv. Kat. Nr. 474 B Berlin, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Gemäldegalerie © BPK, Berlin, Dist. RMN-Grand Palais / Jörg P. Anders; (3) François Boucher (1703-1770), Les Charmes de la vie champêtre Huile sur toile 100 x 146 cm Musée du Louvre, Département des Peintures, Paris © RMN-Grand Palais (musée du Louvre) / Jean-Gilles Berizzi; (4) Antoine Watteau (1684-1721), Pierrot content Vers 1712-1713 Huile sur toile 35 x 31 cm Madrid, Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza © Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza, Madrid; (5) Nicolas Lancret (1690-1743), Fête Galante avec la Camargo dansant avec un partenaire Vers 1727-1728 Huile sur toile, 76,2 x 106,7 cm National Gallery of art, Washington, W. Mellon collection © Courtesy National Gallery of Art, Washington; (6) Nicolas Lancret (1690-1743), Baigneuses et spectateurs dans un paysage (Les Plaisirs du bain) Avant 1725, huile sur toile, 97 x 145 cm Paris, Musée du Louvre, Département des peintures, collection du baron Edmond de Rothschild (1926-1997); dation en paiement de droits de mutation, 1990 © RMN-Grand Palais (musée du Louvre) / Jean-Gilles Berizzi; (7) François Boucher (1703-1770), Pastorale Huile sur toile, 64,5 x 81 cm Karlsruhe, Staatliche Kunsthalle © Staatliche Kunsthalle Karlsruhe; (8) Jean-Honoré Fragonard (1732-1806), La Fête à Saint-Cloud Vers 1775-1780, huile sur toile, 214 x 334 cm Paris, Hôtel de Toulouse, siège de la Banque de France © RMN-Grand Palais / Gérard Blot; (9) Jean-Honoré Fragonard (1732-1806), Le Jeu de la Main chaude Vers 1775-1780 Huile sur toile, 115,5 x 91,5 cm Washington, D.C., National Gallery of art, Washington, Samuel H. Kress collection © Courtesy National Gallery of Art, Washington 3 

Posted at 6:53am and tagged with: Paris, france, address, museum,.

Places to go and things to eat around Guérande (Brittany)

You might know Guérande (Photo 1) for its sea salt. It is collected in the Marais Salants (photo 2) through a long process that involves waiting for the seawater to evaporate. If you’re asked for more than €5 for a five kilo bag, at the market or at one of the shack on the side of the roads, you’re being had.

I know Guérande because aged one to five, I holidayed there every summer, at my grandparents’ house. I have limited memories of the place, although during the week I just spent there, I kept being struck by justified feelings of déjà-vu.

We stayed at Le Croisic (photo 3 and 10), a nice enough village at the end of a peninsula. I wouldn’t recommend it for a long term stay; you’d probably get claustrophobic as almost any journey requires going through the village of Batz-sur-Mer. Alternatives would be Piriac (photo 5), a typical Brittany village or La Turballe (photo 4), a port which is busy all year round. Local specialty: the sardines, which you can see being unloaded from the boats every day. You, and the dozens of seagulls waiting for their goodies.

O Jardin Secret, 10 quai du Port Ciguet, 44 490 Le Croisic

One of the best value-for-money restaurants on Le Croisic wharf, O Jardin Secret serves fresh products straight from the Criée (fish market) standing opposite. The basic, three-dish menu costs €16.90, and includes a choice of fish soup or home-smoked salmon for starter followed by the fish of the day with a beurre blanc sauce and mashed potatoes or meat. Dessert is a floating island, sorbet or the local Far Breton, a cooked custard with plums.


Holidaying in Brittany without eating a single crêpe should be a sin. They are the local pizza, best served with a bolée de cidre, a bowl of cider. Crêpes can be cheap since the ingredients involved aren’t costly – you shouldn’t pay more than 6 for a basic savoury galette de froment with ham and cheese, and no more than 4 for a basic sweet crepe with sugar and butter.

Fleur de Sel, Village de Kervalet, 44740 Batz-sur-Mer

The best crêperie we tried was the restaurant Fleur de Sel, located in the cute and typical village of Kervalet (photo 7). Aside from the traditional ham, cheese, mushrooms galettes, the place offers specials ranging from La Turballaise, spread with a sardine-butter-shallots concoction, to La Paludier, with eggs, onions, pancetta and cheese. I had La Bretonne with a leek fondue, pancetta, crème fraiche and cheese, which was the perfect balance of tastes. My dessert was La Pimms, which had nothing to do with the alcohol and was instead filled with orange marmalade, hot chocolate sauce and topped with an orange sorbet. My dad had La Gourmande, topped with salted caramel ice-cream and a warm chocolate sauce while my mum chose La Normande with stewed apples, vanilla ice cream and salted caramel (photo 6). The bill added up to 54, including a bottle of local cider. We left stuffed and content.

Le Commerce, 1 rue des Viviers, 56760 Penestin

Le Commerce, in the Morbihan county (insider tip: to figure out when you have crossed the border from one French county to the next, watch out for a sudden tarmac change), is a fast-served crêperie with an imaginative menu. I had a complète with ham, cheese, mushrooms and eggs, which was moist and filling. My dad had one with Andouille de Guéméné, a local sausage delicacy made with smoked pork large intestine, another must-taste from the region. My mum had one with ham and tomatoes that was a bit dry. For dessert, you can’t go wrong with another local specialty, the salted caramel spread. Mine, the decadent Angélique, came with whipped cream, toasted almonds and vanilla ice cream.

Local products

La Belle Iloise (photos 8 and 9) sells yummy tinned fish, three words you might not read together very often. The chain has stores all along the Brittany coast selling tuna, sardines, fish and lobster soups as well as mackerel sandwich fillings at factory prices. Take an empty suitcase: all products are sold by lots of at least three. Prices start around 5 for three salmon and tarragon spread tins. It’s also a great place for presents, since all stores offer assortments.

Driving through Brittany, you’ll keep seeing biscuiteries and fabriques de biscuits on the side of the road. Park by any of them and you’re guaranteed to find a wealth of butter-based desserts: palets and galettes, gateaux Bretons, crepes, Kouign amann… La Trinitaine, a semi-industrial chain, sells the cheapest salted caramels of the lot at 17 per kilo.  And I’d know, since we visited about 10 to compare. The salted caramel spread is a nice alternative, perfect on brioche, also produced locally. For a more upmarket and semi-artisan version, local son and “meilleur ouvrier de France” (‘best artisan in France’) George Larnicol has opened stores all over the region, selling for instance a little Kouign Amann, the Kouignette and Petit Ruilh, a melted biscuit filled with homemade jam.

Noirmoutier new potatoes. Like Jersey’s, but from a more local island. Can be found in any worth supermarket or from markets. | Secret Bichonné du couvent.  A tome-like cheese with the cutest name (and considering France is rumoured to count 300 types of cheese, there was competition) since it means Beloved secret from the convent. | La Fraiseraie. A local artisan ice-cream chain that started in the 70s, growing strawberries around Pornic. You can still buy the locally picked strawberries, as well strawberry syrups and jams in their 10 stores but the real treat is their ice-cream: a rainbow of tastes. I recommend praline as well as poire-chocolat (pear and chocolate) made with actual pieces of pears.

All prices accurate as of 30 June 2014. Photos courtesy of Pierre Goulet.

Posted at 7:42pm and tagged with: address, france, food,.

In France, Evian banks on 1998 nostalgia

Friday 4 July, half-time during the France-Germany World Cup quarter-final. Germany is leading 1-0 but Evian has taken a gamble, rebroadcasting its 1998 TV spot featuring swimming babies. “1998, a year we dream to re-live,” the ad declares over a background of referee whistles.

With perfect and studied timing, Evian had added the video to its YouTube account on 15 June, as France played its first match against Honduras. The brand announced the campaign on Twitter on 25 June, just as France went through to the last sixteen after the match against Ecuador. The tweet said: “In 1998, our babies were swimming. What are your memories of this mythical year?”

So far, the YouTube video has been watched 158,716 times. The tweet has gathered 178 retweets and 102 favourites, with the ad picked up and commented upon independently in other tweets too - a decent though not high level of engagement. In comparison, a tweet featuring tennis player and Evian poster-woman Maria Sharapova, posted on the 3 July, has so far gathered 214 retweets and 508 favourites*.

User responses to the tweet vary: some tweeted back it was the year they were born, the year they got married, the year they saw their first gig…  Many tweeted that for them, 1998 was all about France’s win. In short, the swimming babies succeeded in linking Evian to positive emotions and often life-changing memories.

Known for its imaginative and cute TV ads that play on its trademark theme of youth by water, Evian had a great marketing idea in rebroadcasting its 1998 ad. Though I remembered the spot, had I seen it without background information, I would have been incapable of dating it. Once I knew, it was as if it had dropped me in a comforting bath.

Calling on nostalgia is nothing new in advertising. Analysing the trend last year, specialised publication AdWeek remarked: “In a study of brands that had consumers buzzing during the first quarter, NBCUniversal Integrated Media noticed that those connecting to the past resonated strongly with consumers and shot to the top of its Brand Power Index (BPI)”.

Although nostalgia is a proven advertising strategy, Evian did take a risk by betting that France would get behind its national team. After the team’s skin-of-the-teeth qualification in November 2013, 79% of the French population had a negative opinion of Les Bleus. By the quarter finals, 62% of the French population had a positive view of them. News analysis has been focusing on this regained popularity as much as they have been discussing the team’s sports qualities. This might have been a factor in Evian deciding to spend the €200,000 or so the 32 seconds spot broadcast at peak time would have cost.

As with any bout of nostalgia, it doesn’t matter that 1998 wasn’t actually as good a year as France now remembers, since the World Cup title has thrown most other events in a pink fog. In a 2010 article about “The Power of Nostalgia in Advertising” for Branding Strategy Insider, brand consultant Derrick Daye explains that “every time we remember a past event it not only evokes the earlier memory, but can re-cast the past into a more pleasing “remembered” version. Memory, thinking and feeling are an active, shaping process.” In 1998 France, unemployment in Q2 leading up to the World Cup was at 11.7%, two points higher than what it is today. The French economy was restarting independently of football, after some tough times in the mid-90’s, thanks to a strong US growth. Had France won against Germany last Friday, and gone to hold the trophy, economists agree that it wouldn’t have resulted in similar economic results because the current landscape is too different.

But that’s irrelevant to Evian’s advertising strategy because, four World Cups from now, we would have remembered 2014 as a great year for France. Nothing shortcuts memory like happiness.

*As of 9am on 06 July 2014

Posted at 4:49pm and tagged with: marketing, Brand communication, world cup, Social media,.

Paris Museum Review: Nissim de Camondo

The Nissim de Camondo Museum's story reads like too many French Jewish family stories from the first half of the 20th century.

Eager to serve his country, the young Nissim enlisted as soon as World War I broke out. At first, he served in the infantry, in the trenches, before joining the brand new French Air Force. He went missing during an air battle in Eastern France, aged just 25.  

In his memory his father, the banker, aesthete and collector Moïse de Camondo, gifted his hôtel particulier, in Paris’ posh and quiet VIIIe arrondissement, to the nation. His other child, daughter Beatrice Reinach, had shown no interest in his collection of 18th century art. Moïse stipulated that the museum would bear his son’s name and would be kept exactly as it was at the time of his death, in 1935. Nothing added, nothing removed.

Beatrice died a few years later, rounded up with her husband and two children by the police. Like so many French Jews, Beatrice had thought that her nationality, combined with her family’s services to the nation, would protect her. First kept in the Drancy transit camp, the Reinach family were deported to Auschwitz-Birkenau where they died - either gassed or from typhus - between 1943 and 1945. With them, died the last of the Camondos.

Although not at the heart of the museum, the family’s painful history is present throughout the visit. It brings very human emotions to a time that would otherwise solely focus on the beauty and artefacts on display.

Nissim is there, through photos as well as through the home office he only used a few times whilst on leave. Beatrice is there through her love of horses, seen for instance in a bronze equestrian statue of her.

But most present of them all is their father Moïse. Moïse had the mansion built made-to-measure, modelled on the Versailles’ Petit Trianon's architecture, to welcome his collection of 18th century treasures, including paintings, furniture, china, carpets.

All were sourced from le style transition (1750 to 1774) and le style Louis XVI (1774 to 1785), two key Arts Décoratifs styles inspired by the discovery of Pompeii and geometric motives.

Walking through the museum, it’s hard to imagine that was only built and furnished 100 years ago; Moïse’s modern taste (in terms of home comfort) are an easy reminder of how far ostentation had been indulged between the Revolution and the early 19th century.

Moïse and Nissim both had large bathrooms with stoneware baths and bidets. The chef had a phone in his office. The kitchen displays the best late 1910’s culinary technology. Guests could take a lift rather than climb the spectacular flight of stairs.

In keeping with Moïse’s modernity and functionality, the museum recently launched the augmented reality app Camondo AR. Available on iTunes and Android, it guides the visitor through one of my favourite rooms: le cabinet des porcelaines, which displays an extensive collection of chinas. They span 18th century styles and techniques: soft paste porcelain from Chantilly, Meissen porcelain from Germany and the highlight, three sets of green services Buffon from Sèvres, decorated with illustrations from Buffon’s 1770 Histoire Naturelle des Oiseaux (a natural history of birds). Thanks to the app, you can point your smartphone on any plate and hear each bird sing. The cabinet is a reminder of how much our current eating habits own the 18th century. Until then, there were no dining rooms; people ate in their bedrooms.

Moïse’s modernity wasn’t just functional, it was also personal. He had divorced his wife Irène Cahen-d’Anvers, who you might have heard of thanks to her portrait by Pierre-Auguste Renoir. Their marriage had everything to do with bringing two powerful finance families together, and nothing to do with love. Following her daughter’s death in 1945, Irène inherited the Camondo fortune, which she is said to have squandered.

Luckily, the conditions of Moïse’s donation stopped her from splitting his painfully gathered collection. The museum was closed during the war and emptied of its treasures, stored for safekeeping in the Valençay castle. Thanks to this foresight, we can admire Moïse’s precise taste. For instance, two console tables on display in the Salon des Huets were purchased almost 30 years apart. The library dictated the height of the first floor because it needed to be perfectly dimensioned to welcome the panelling Moïse had bought from an original 18th century mansion. The Savonnerie carpet in Moïse’s room comes from Versailles, where it had been delivered in 1760 so Mesdames the King’s sisters could use it in the chapel on holidays and Sundays.

Through his purchases, Moïse safeguarded multiple 18th century oeuvres d’art. He isn’t the only member of the Camondo family French museums owe a debt to: you can spot the name next to numerous early 20th century paintings in museums like Le Louvre and Orsay. This is thanks to Moïse’s cousin Isaac - his 1911 donation contained some of the Impressionists’ most famous paintings. Manet’s Joueur de Fifre, Degas’ La Classe de Danse and Sisley’s L’Inondation à Port-Marly are all on display thanks to Isaac’s taste.

The Nissim de Camondo museum is open Tuesday to Sunday. Leave two hours to visit, up to three if you go through every option on the audio guide.

Photos courtesy of Camille Goulet.

Posted at 8:54pm and tagged with: Paris, 18th century, address, france, museum,.

From Luxor to Paris: The Odyssey of the Place de la Concorde Obelisk

It’s a miracle an Egyptian obelisk stands proud on the Paris Place de la Concorde. Not so much because of the mystery surrounding its carving, transport and erection in Upper Egypt in the 8th century BC, but rather because of the number of obstacles it faced on the journey from the city of Luxor to its current French abode. End to end, from Egyptian Khedive Muhammad Ali gifting it to France to its erection in Paris, the journey took seven years (1829 to 1836) and encountered technical difficulties, a cholera outbreak, stormy seas and Egyptian droughts.

The transfer was more than geographical, it was topical. A symbolised link between gods and humans in Egypt, the obelisk became a prime tourist attraction in France, and is currently the focus of a detailed exhibition at the Paris Musée de la Marine. It’s a fitting location: the French navy oversaw the journey. Apollinaire Lebas, the engineer who lead the project, was appointed curator of the museum in recognition of his work.

Focused on the Luxor-Paris journey, the exhibition quickly deals with the question of how the obelisk was made during Ramesses II’s reign. A video at the entrance shows men carving a bedrock of pink granite in the Aswan quarries.

When Muhammad Ali offered both obelisks from the temple of Luxor to France 16 centuries later, they were buried in nearly four metres of sand, as shown by the miniatures on display. In the 19th century, Egyptian monuments were used as an easy place to source rocks or build on, rather than as historical testimonies.

Lebas’ party, tasked with collecting the monolith, arrived in Luxor in August 1831 after five months at sea aboard the Luxor ship. Imagine Luxor at that time of the year: scorching. The obelisk itself was not in the condition the men expected; an eight-metre long fissure threatened to break it if they dared to try and move it. As his men watered the Luxor, now lying on the sand on the side of the Nile, twice a day, Lebas was forced to rethink his initial plan to take the obelisk down.

Two months later, everything was ready. Using two machines actioned by 200 men, the obelisk was brought down. During the transfer however, its centre of gravity moved and the obelisk fell in the sand, in the wrong direction but… in one piece. Lebas had succeeded in the first part of his mission.

The second part: bring the monolith back to the Luxor, 400 metres away. A span was cut in the sand. Using four capstans, 48 men managed the journey in two hours. The Luxor had been cut open to welcome her charge and, once the obelisk was on board, put back together.

Christmas day 1831 saw the men waiting for the flood for the first, but far from last, time. They needed the Nile to rise for the Luxor to float with her charge, a meteorological event not scheduled until the following summer. During that time, the party split in a few groups: some explored further than where Napoleon’s soldiers had gone, gathering scientific samples and taking Egyptian antiques for the Paris museum; others stayed in Luxor where they built a refreshing garden.

On 25 August 1832, just over a year after reaching its destination, the Luxor began the trip back to Alexandria. It reached the seaside town six months later, after being unexpectedly stuck in sandbanks.

The Sphinx, the first French navy steam boat, pulls the Luxor to Toulon, where she was initially quarantined before Lebas was able to disembark. His mission was only half complete: he still needed to get the obelisk to stand tall, in the heart of Paris.

Key to the success of this first leg of the journey was its core team. Aside from Lebas who, not wanting to live with the shame of failure, placed himself under the obelisk as it was erected Place de la Concorde so it would crush him if it fell, the party included: Lieutenant-Commander Raymond de Verninac Saint-Maur; his right-hand man Léon de Joannis, who documented the journey through sketches and Justin Pascal Angevin, a doctor. Angevin was not actually meant to be on board but switched places with the nominated doctor because he was determined to go to Egypt. He protected the men against cholera and dysentery. Although the exhibition doesn’t discuss the dynamics between the men, it is a lesson about the team’s role in the success of any project. With a different doctor, the whole party might have died.

Finally, after the last leg of the journey that saw the Luxor pulled by horses on the Seine, and the authorities somehow losing track of her, the obelisk reached Paris. However, it spent another two years lying by the pont de la Concorde before it was erected at its current place. King Louis-Philippe attended on a nearby balcony, only emerging when the experiment was a guaranteed success.

So the Obélisque has stood, overseeing traffic, for nearly two centuries. Louis-Philippe picked the place because he wanted it to be known for something else than the rivers of blood flooding there during Revolutionary beheading, including Marie-Antoinette’s and Louis VXI’s. By creating a new landmark and a new shorthand for Paris’ landscape, he succeeded. Yet few of the Parisians and tourists walking by every day marvel at how the obelisk got there, at the technological prowess and bravery involved in bringing a 230 tonne, 20 metre-high block of granite from Luxor to Paris in 19th century conditions. Le Voyage de l’Obélisque rights this oversight, mixing human stories with engineering in an exhibition covering all aspects of the journey.

Its only failure is not addressing whether the obelisk should be sent back to Luxor. The French authorities probably want to discuss the topic as much Neil MacGregor wants to discuss the Elgin Marbles’ ownership. The conditions under which the obelisk was obtained are less dodgy than the Parthenon sculptures though. Like any good 19th century French tale, it also involves the Brits. In fact, the Luxor obelisks could be standing in Trafalgar Square, since it had initially been promised to the Crown. Jean-François Champollion, liaising with Muhammad Ali on the topic, convinced the British consul to take the bigger Karnak obelisk instead, the only one worthy of William IV. It also turned out to be impossible to transport, which Champollion probably knew. So cunning, those French archaeologists!

The exhibition is open until 6 July 2014.

Photo credits: The exhibition banner; Flickr user Marc Ben Fatma Place de la Concorde; Flickr user Yann Caradec Obelisque de la place de la Concorde; Flickr user Le Jhe Concorde; Erection of the Luxor Obelisk Érection de l’Obélisque de Louxor,25 octobre 1836, détails, aquarelle. Cayrac, 1837 Dépôt du musée du Louvre© Musée national de la Marine/P. Dantec; The Luxor Obelisk being taken down Abattage de l’obélisque de Louqsor Maquette au 1/66 Atelier du musée de la Marine, 1847 © Musée national de la Marine/A. Fux; Shipping off the Luxor Obelisk Embarquement de l’obélisque de Louqsor Maquette au 1/66 Atelier du musée de la Marine, 1847 © Musée national de la Marine/A. Fux; Façade du temple de Louxor, vers 1800, aquarelle. François-Charles Cé-cile (1766-1840). © RMN-Grand Palais (musée du Louvre)/Les frères Chuzeville; Portrait d’Apollinaire Lebas (1797-1873), anonyme, milieu XIXe siècle © Musée national de  la Marine/A.Fux; Flickr user Jason Garber Place de la Concorde

Posted at 5:23pm and tagged with: exhibition review, Paris, address, Egypt,.